Green, Sustainable, High Performance Building…
Whatever You Call It, It’s Here to Stay.
By Carrie L. Ciliberto
Green building (aka sustainable building or high performance building) is
booming, at least as reported by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in
its September 2015 Green Building Economic Impact Study that was published
The USGBC report shows that from 2011 to 2014, $167.4 billion in GDP, 2.1
million jobs and $147.7 billion in labor earnings were directly related to
sustainable building in the United States (US). In looking to the future,
they project that from 2015 through 2018, $303.4 billion in GDP, 3.9 million
jobs, and $268.4 billion in labor earnings will be directly attributable to
green construction in the US. These figures reflect increases of
approximately 81%, 86% and 82%, respectively over the next few years. That
growth in green building spending is outpacing non-green construction
spending, with LEED construction accounting for approximately one-third of
the included data.
The USGBC report opines that an additional investment of two percent (2%)
above traditional construction costs to support green building measures has
been shown to yield a building lifecycle savings of more than 10 times the
amount of that additional investment. In the past few years, the federal
government and a majority of states have passed green building policies,
many of which include incentives to owners who incorporate sustainable and
high performance products and measures in the new and existing buildings,
and others that are mandatory requirements.
In addition to the potential financial and natural resource benefits, green
buildings have been found to enhance work and life quality. While readers
are likely more familiar with green building certification options such as
LEED, Green Globes and similar designations, another type of certification
is the International WELL Building Institute’s (IWBI) WELL Building
Standard. According to the IWBI website, the standard was launched in late
2014 and is a “performance-based system for measuring, certifying, and
monitoring features of the built environment that impact human health and
well being, through air, water, nourishment, light, fitness, comfort, and
Occupants at the first WELL-certified office were surveyed and the results
were overwhelmingly positive. More than 90% reported that the WELL-certified
space created a positive effect on their health and wellbeing, as well as a
positive impact on their business performance with 80+% saying that they
“feel more productive”. This third-party certification is provided through
IWBI’s collaboration with Green Building Certification Inc., which
administers the LEED certification process.
What all of this data suggests is that owners have a vested interest in at
least considering green building today and beyond. In order to make the
right decisions, the parties (and the owner in particular since s/he has the
most to gain or lose in the end) should carefully consider the project
priorities, goals, measurable targets, costs, and benefits. Additionally,
the project-specifics need to be taken into consideration. For example, the
project’s location can influence the feasibility of certain techniques or
processes, as well as the ease in availability of certain materials.
Once the owner has determined the green objectives, it is critical that all
project participants understand their respective roles and responsibilities.
Understanding expectations in theory is one thing, but making sure that
those understandings are memorialized in a detail writing (aka the contract)
is crucial. The contract is the vehicle through which the parties’
respective roles and responsibilities in facilitating or achieving the
owner’s green goals are clearly defined. This includes what green goals are
required and who is responsible for the various aspects of reaching those
goals. Key components include ensuring that all steps of the process are
clearly documented in as much detail as possible including not only design
and construction, but also the data gathering and paperwork necessary to
obtain any desired green building certifications.
When published in 2009, the ConsensusDocs 310 Green Building Addendum (GBA)
was the first industry-standard contract to comprehensively address
sustainable design and construction. The ConsensusDocs Coalition knew that
with the rise in green building, there was a corresponding increased need
for a fair and balanced standard contract to assist parties in this
endeavor. Readers can register at
to download a sample of the ConsensusDocs GBF.
The ConsensusDocs GBA “provides the decision making, communication, and
documentation link among the parties so that nothing is hidden and nothing
is ignored during the planning, design, and construction process,” states
Stephen M. Charney, co-managing partner of Peckar & Abramson, in Victor O.
Schinnerer & Company, Inc.’s Constructive Comments newsletter. “It is a
flexible document that can be used on projects where LEED, Green Globes, or
some other third-party certification is the goal, or just where the project
client wants a high performance building that will be measured by
objectively looking at its execution and operation.”
Unique to ConsensusDocs is the inclusion of a party designated as the “Green
Building Facilitator” or “GBF”. The GBF is identified as the person(s)
and/or entity(ies) who “coordinate and facilitate the process” of achieving
the owner’s green building goals. This enables the owner to have a
coordinated process in place to help ensure project success. The GBF “could
be the architect/engineer, contractor, construction manager, or even a
third-party advisory/independent consultant, as long as the GBF is not an
in-house employee or staff member of the owner,” states Martha L. Perkins,
Esq., general counsel for the National Association of Surety Bond Producers
(NASBP), in AGC’s Constructor magazine.
When vetting a green building contract, it’s also important to make sure
that the risk allocations are appropriate. For example, a contract that
holds a contractor responsible for improper design is generally neither
appropriate nor insurable. Another consideration is whether the contemplated
green technologies and materials are new or experimental, which potentially
can give rise to a whole host of issues throughout the building’s lifecycle.
While green/high performance/sustainable building is on the rise, litigation
has been sparse to date. One often-cited case considered green building
litigation, at least in part, is Southern Builders, Inc. v. Shaw
Development, LLC filed in Maryland. The dispute arose from a $7.5 million
mixed-use project where Southern Builders filed a mechanics lien against
Shaw Development for nonpayment. Shaw alleged breach of contract due to
failure to achieve the desired LEED certification.
While non-payment and breach of contract claims are not uncommon in the
design and construction industry, the inclusion of green building factors is
rather novel. A more recent case involving green building, again at least
involving green issues in part, is The Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Inc., et.
al. v. Weyerhaeuser Company also filed in Maryland. This case involves one
of the first projects to be certified LEED Platinum and claims included
breach of contract due to alleged “defective, inferior or unsuitable
building products.” Litigation can arise in a variety of ways at least
ancillary to green building, including non-compliance with regulatory
requirements; inappropriate or ineffective techniques employed; lack of
desired certification; misrepresentation; inappropriate, ineffective or
defective materials; and a host of other traditional and specific-to-green
building issues such as withheld payments like in the Shaw case.
While there have been only a handful of reported cases regarding green
building to date, and no reported appellate court decisions, it is logical
to assume that unless parties use solid contractual foundations that clearly
define green objectives and the parties roles and responsibilities,
disappointment, frustration, disputes and litigation likely will increase.
In addition to clear and open dialogue between the parties, the
ConsensusDocs 310 Green Building Addendum can play a key role in helping to
ensure sustainable projects stay on track. As aptly stated by Jeremy
Oppenhein and Martin Stuchtey in their recent Fortune magazine article,
“Like it or not, sustainability is now core to your business.” So readers
would be wise to learn about and incorporate best practices quickly and
thoroughly. Time will tell whether litigation increases due to green
building, but taking the extra time and effort to discuss and memorialize in
writing the expectations of the project participants can go a long way to
minimizing negative impacts.
the author: Carrie L. Ciliberto, Esq. is Senior Director and Counsel of
Contracts and Construction Law for the Associated General Contractors of
America (AGC), and Deputy Executive Director for ConsensusDocs - the only
standard contracts written by a coalition of 40+ design and construction
industry organizations. Ms. Ciliberto was the principal of Ciliberto &
Associates, LLC, providing natural resources, environmental and water law
counsel for 10+ years. She is licensed in Colorado, DC, and federal courts
including the U.S. Supreme Court. She frequently speaks at industry events
around the nation and has authored numerous industry articles. You can reach
Carrie at firstname.lastname@example.org.