
Amazing Black Boxes
Just how do construction cost modifiers work?
By Joe Macaluso
I bring you news of three exciting devices! One acts like Orson Wells’ time
machine and recreates your building in the past or into the future. Another
works like a Transporter on the Star Ship Enterprise and instantly moves
your building to a different location. Yet another one expands or shrinks
the size of your building like something out of Alice in Wonderland. Yes,
these devices really do exist. There’s only one catch, and it’s a big one,
they only affect estimated cost of these transformations. These “black
boxes” are called modifiers (indexes, factors or multipliers). They’re
simple, easy to use, and fairly accurate.
Below is an example that I’ll use to demonstrate each modifier. For clarity I
will take each revision as a separate case, however you can use any
combination or all of them for the same building.
Given
Office Building
Construction Year is 2009
Building Location is New York City, New York
Building Size is 140,000 SF 
Typical Size for this type of building is 140,000 SF
Estimated Cost is $28,000,000, therefore the Cost/SF is $200
Revisions
Change Construction Year to 2011
Change Location to Chicago, Illinois
Change Size to 180,000 SF
TIME
Let’s start with time (escalation, or historic) modifiers. These will adjust
the estimated cost of a building from the original construction date, to
another construction date, or project costs into the future. This is not to
be confused with how long it takes to build the building (construction
duration). To understand how building costs will be affected by construction
duration you need to work with a construction schedule. Time modifiers do
NOT take into account the time value of money, or the cost of financing.
The accuracy of time modifiers diminishes as the difference between the
original construction date and the revised construction date widens. This is
due to changes in technology, materials, labor practices, and equipment
which changes over time. When determining the construction date for a
building, it is a good practice to use the midpoint of construction as the
date for both original and revised dates.
Time modifiers are determined by tracking a weighted average of the material
and labor costs that make up a typical building over time and providing
index figures for each year or part of that year. There are differences in
opinions on what costs should be included, and how they should be
interpreted.
You can find time modifiers in Design Cost Data™ magazine (DCD). If you are
using D4Cost™ software or DCD Archives™, either system will revise (rebase)
the estimate based on the location you choose. Providers include RS Means,
Engineering News Record (ENR), Turner Construction Company, and BNi
Publications. BNi uses their own modifiers in their cost guides, and
supplies them to Buildings Magazine, the Gordian Group, and DCD. DCD
calculates their own time modifiers for projecting costs into the future.
ENR produces two separate modifiers, the Construction Cost Index (CCI), and
the Building Cost Index (BCI). The CCI factors in 200 hours of common labor
in its index, whereas the (BCI) factors about 68 hours of skilled labor. The
BCI is more appropriate for buildings. ENR offers a particularly detailed
explanation of how they compile their modifiers. It can be found at
http://enr.construction.com/economics/FAQ.asp.
To modify an estimate due to a revised construction date
the formula is:
Estimated Cost *( Modifier for the revised construction date / Modifier for
original construction date)
Substituting actual numbers we get:
$28,000,000 * (185.7 / 180.1) = $28,870,600 (rounded) 
LOCATION
Location (city or region) modifiers revise the estimated building costs to
reflect the costs to those of a different location. They are also based on a
weighted average of building material and labor costs that make up the cost
of a typical building, but these costs are tracked for several locations.
There are also a few location modifiers available that are based on the
unique mix of building material and labor associated with specialty
construction such as cleanroom labs. I have even seen international location
modifiers. Always check, but generally location modifiers do not account for
the cost differences in managerial efficiency, competition, union practices,
building codes or other local conditions. These factors are highly
subjective, and usually do not have a huge bearing on costs. If there are
special circumstances you are aware of where these factors have a major
impact on costs and are not included in the modifier, they need to be
addressed separately. Location modifiers are not affected by the relative
distance from the existing location to the revised location. Location
modifiers are also available for individual CSI divisions or specific
building materials (for example steel, concrete, masonry). Location
modifiers can be found in DCD magazine. If you are using D4Cost Software or
DCD Archives simply select the desired location for the project and it will
revise (rebase) the estimated cost to that location. Providers include RS
Means, DCD, and BNi.
To modify an estimate due to a revised location the formula is:
Estimated Cost * (Modifier for revised location / Modifier for original
location)
Substituting actual numbers we get:
$28,000,000 * (116.6 / 132.2) = $24,696,000 (rounded)

Note: If the estimated costs are obtained from a cost data source that uses
a national average, simply multiply that estimated cost by the modifier
supplied by the cost data source.
SIZE
Naturally the cost of a building increases as its size increases, but what
about the cost per square foot? In relatively small increments the cost per
square foot remains the same; the total cost increases at the same ratio as
the change in size (linear). The square foot size modifier using a linear
model will always be one (1). The total cost size modifier will be the ratio
of the revised size over the original size.
The Linear modifier is quick and easy to use, however for larger size
increments something called the Six Tenths rule comes into play. The Six
Tenths rule tells us that the cost of a facility increases exponentially to
its size; usually the exponent used is (.6). What does this mean? If you
plotted the ratio of cost to size, you would get a curve, not a straight
line. Why? As the size of a building increases, you gain cost savings due to
economies of scale (better material prices are obtained as larger quantities
are ordered), and the learning curve improves productivity as more
experience is gained, also the ratio less expensive inner building square
footage to that of the more expensive perimeter walls increases as the size
of the building increases.
The accuracy of size modifiers also diminishes as the difference between
original building size and revised building size increases due to the
increasing possibility that different construction methods and materials
will be required. This is true for both linear and exponent size modifiers.
When determining the size of a building, there are general guidelines for
certain building features, for example, balconies, canopies, and open
terraces as count as ½ their area, and open roof areas are not counted at
all. These are normally not critical issues, but these conventions are laid
out in the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACEi)
Standard #13S9, and the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Document
D101.
When using D4Cost software or DCD Archives simply input the revised square
footage of the building and the software will do the math to revise the cost
based on the linear model. Exponent modifier providers include RS Means, and
the US Department of Defense.
To modify an estimate due to a revised size, using the linear model, the
formula is:
Estimated Cost/Building Size = Cost/Square Foot
(Cost/Square Foot) * revised square footage = Revised Estimated Cost
Substituting actual numbers we get:
$28,000,000/140,000SF = $200/SF
($200/SF)*180,000SF = $36,000,000
To modify an estimate due to a revised size, using the linear model, the
formula is:
Building Size/Typical Size = Size Factor yields a Cost Multiplier from a
reference source
Cost Multiplier * Cost (based on a typical building size)/Square Foot =
Revised Estimated Cost/SF
Substituting actual numbers we get:
180,000SF/140,000SF = 1.30 which yields .95 from a reference source
.98 *($200/SF) = $196/SF
($196/SF) * 180,000SF = $35,280,000 
About the author
Joseph Macaluso has over 20 years of experience as a construction cost
estimator working on multimillion dollar projects for several New York City
and New York State agencies. Recently he has authored the guide,
Understanding Construction Costs: How to Review Estimates, available in
ebook, and print formats at Amazon.com, iTunes, and as an online guide at
Guides.co website. He can be reached at
joemacaluso@verizon.net. 